For high-quality and timely localization of uncontrolled flashes, modern fire extinguishing means and methods are used – best fire extinguisher for home. They include many varieties, performed both stationary and mobile, for transportation. The use of high-quality fire equipment allows you to cope with the ignition in the short term, preventing the further spread of fire.
The main methods and means of fire extinguishing can be divided into several groups. They are classified according to the conditions of application, efficiency, and method of use. These include:
- Sprayers located directly in the room, which are activated by special sensors;
- Fire extinguishers with different contents, manual and transported type;
- Inventory for the facilitation of fire suppression, which is located in special shields;
- Fire cocks connecting with the system of fire water supply;
- Special equipment and vehicles serviced by qualified staff.
Methods of localization of a fire
To provide fire safety within large buildings or premises, stationary methods and means of extinguishing fires are used – fire extinguisher types. These include special equipment, which is located in rooms, corridors, stairwells.
Depending on the method of activating these funds, they can be divided into two main types:
- Automatic – Water irrigation is activated by an electrical signal coming from heat sensors or smoke detectors. These systems are the most reliable but differ inexpensive installation;
Manual – in this case, the water supply is carried out after human actions. Here the human factor plays a major role, which increases the overall risk and reduces the effectiveness of the system.
- Methods of fire extinguishing (class of fire extinguisher)
The main methods of extinguishing a fire in the initial stages include manual firefighting and fire extinguishers. Inventory is located in special enclosed shields. Its complete set includes buckets, shovels of soviet and bayonet type, fire axes, scrap, forks, hooks.
Also, this group includes modern fire extinguishers, which are classified depending on the principle of action and filling on: powder, foam, water, carbon dioxide, emulsion, and others.
These include fire cocks, located directly on the premises. They are connected to a special water pipe installed in the room and can be effectively applied when extinguishing fires on one floor or in one room.
Fire fighting vehicles are mobile-type. They include cars, planes, helicopters, trains and a fire brigade.
The importance of modern equipment for extinguishing fires
What are the types of fire extinguishers: to ensure high safety and fire extinguishing efficiency, it is possible only with the use of qualitative means of localization of fire. There is a modern fire extinguishing equipment, implemented following high standards of quality.
The fire extinguisher must effectively fight the ignition centers of solid flammable substances (class A), liquid flammable substances (class B), and be able to extinguish electrical equipment under voltage (class E); about the effectiveness of the fire extinguisher say the ratings on the label. The higher the number next to the fire class, the larger area or volume can be extinguished by this fire extinguisher; it is necessary to take into account the peculiarities of the operation conditions of the fire extinguisher and to pay attention to the working temperature range, the wider the range, the better; pay attention to the service life and frequency of re-inspection of the fire extinguisher, as well as the date of its manufacture.
Some other nuances need to be addressed before choosing a fire extinguisher.
Not all types of fire extinguishers are suitable for extinguishing a fire.
Aerosol fire extinguishers, more like a cartridge of air freshener or shaving foam, due to the low efficiency and low charge of extinguishant, are not categorically suited for extinguishing a large scale fire.
Water and air-foam fire extinguishers are unacceptable for extinguishing electrical equipment under voltage, as well as high-voltage electrical equipment.
Class B fire extinguishers are not suitable for extinguishing liquid flammable substances. Also, such fire extinguishers have a narrow working range of temperatures from +5 ° C to +50 ° C, during the winter period at temperatures below 0 ° C, the fire extinguisher can lose its tightness.
Widely used powder extinguishers are devoid of these disadvantages, but have other interesting features: high smoke and a significant reduction in the visibility of the center due to the powder cloud, which is formed when applying a powder fire extinguisher, complicates the localization of the hearth.
When extinguishing the fire with such a fire extinguisher there is no cooling effect and high probability of re-ignition.
The complete absence of extinguishing traces and the cooling effect are in carbon dioxide extinguishers. Moreover, it is so strong that it can cause temperature deformations, for example, frostbite of hands when the use of a carbon dioxide fire extinguisher is not practical.
Air-emulsion fire extinguishers are ecologically clean and safe, deprived of the above-described drawbacks and have high efficiency of quenching of solid flammable substances, and combustible liquids (class A, B). Electrical equipment can be extinguished under voltage up to 20 000 V (class E). Air-emulsion fire extinguishers provide effective cooling of the combustion center, significantly reducing the probability of re-ignition. Secondary damage from the extinguishing agent of air-emulsion fire extinguishers – the minimum. Such fire extinguishers allow operation at negative temperatures to minus 40 ° С. The long lifetime of the fire extinguisher without recharging and re-inspection is 5-7 years! 35 rechargers of a fire extinguisher for a lifetime are allowed.
By a combination of characteristics, universal high-performance air-emulsion fire extinguishers, are most suitable for extinguishing fires of medium-scale ignition.
Reliability: All self-respecting manufacturers of fire extinguishers provide their products with a guarantee. An extinguisher of class B on the average is guaranteed operational efficiency within one year from the moment of manufacture. Therefore, when purchasing it is necessary to carefully study the date of manufacture.
Durability or lifetime of fire extinguishers
It is important to know the following: powder extinguishers are subject to an annual re-examination and mandatory reloading once every 3 years. Also, fire-extinguishing powders during storage are prone to softening and lacing, and at the right moment, the powder extinguisher, which you hoped, can very much bring. The situation is even more intense if the powder extinguisher is equipped with a gas-generating device.
All carbon dioxide fire extinguishers must undergo a mandatory annual technical inspection and reload every 4 to 6 years.
A fire extinguisher is an effective weapon for combating the fire. It should be located in the area of direct availability. It is important for you to know the features of the fire extinguisher, its features, in advance to study the instructions for the use of fire extinguishers. For example, when using a carbon dioxide fire extinguisher there is a strong cooling of the pipe and the extinguisher housing, which can lead to frostbite of the hands.
Inexpensive powder extinguisher of doubtful quality of an unknown manufacturer or powder extinguisher equipped with a gas generating device, which, due to the lack of a pressure gauge, may simply not work at the right moment. The consequences can be very deplorable.